Available Plans for Long Term Financial Planning

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Significance of the Qualified State Tuition Programs

These programs are specifically designed to help the parents, who have long term plans regarding the education of their children.

Out of 50 states in the United States, 49 states offer Qualified State Tuition programs. These programs are also called as 529 plans. They are divided into 2 forms-

  • Tuition prepayment plans
  • Tuition savings plans

Some plans might require the proof of the residency, which is applicable for the donor as well as, the beneficiary.

  • States like Canada will allow universal participation.
  • Some states limit the contribution to the plan, by only allowing the parents or grandparents to pay on behalf of the beneficiary.
  • Some plans allow the contributor to name himself/herself as the beneficiary.
  • Most states give you dual options for payment i.e.in lump sum or on an instalment basis.
  • Some plans deduct taxes from the donor.


In the past, the tuition plans were not so effective as the interest earned was negligible. But now- the state plans are more flexible, and they allow you to take money out-of-state, or to any private institution, within your own state.


The plan has its own advantages- in advance, you pay the course fee for a certain number of credits, and you can choose from the two options for payment (instalments or lump sum). Therefore, you don’t have to worry about the inflation of the tuition fee. The plans are also called as prepaid plans, and they guarantee funding at the time of your child’s education.

The rules have changed for since 2002 for the benefit of the beneficiary. Now, you won’t have to pay federal taxes under the following conditions-

  • If, the fund is used for higher education, like tuition and other allowances, including the cost of the room and boarding at a federally accredited school.
  • The money is used for the purpose of higher education.


These plans don’t guarantee a cover for the tuition inflation. However, the withdrawal is free from federal taxes (if, used for the purpose of education). The financial plan is age based, i.e. the investment experts plan your investment by analyzing your age.

In other words – the younger is your child, the more you have to invest. When your child grows older, the money invested in higher risk equity is gradually transferred into a low risk debt fund like- bonds, investments with a fixed return etc.

Features of the tuition plans-

  • The investment options vary from one plan to another.
  • Most prepaid plans will enable you to change the beneficiary. It implies – you can transfer the ownership from one child to another. This gives you flexibility.
  • This is really beneficial- let us consider an example for a better explanation.
  • Suppose, you have two children, and you are currently saving for the elder child; after saving for a few years you realize that he/she wants to drop his/her plans for the higher education.

    In this situation, you can transfer the fund in the name of the younger child (As mentioned earlier the investment is dependent on age).

    So, it must be noted that – In case, of the elder brother (with higher age) – the mix of investment (the mix of equity debt ratio) will change.

These plans allow an individual to contribute up to $70,000, conditioned– the individual doesn’t make any further gifts. The Contribution will also vary depending on the permission of the state.


Nobody can predict the future until and unless they have a magical tool. Hence, it is always advisable to invest carefully while planning for your future. The rules have changed, making custodial accounts less attractive. This makes the state owned plans more attractive, as you are perfectly aware about – what to invest and how much will you get in return.

These plans are governed and affected by various tax laws, so it is advisable to consult a financial expect before you chose the appropriate savings plan.

As discussed earlier, prepaid plans are paid in advance and they guarantee a specific amount of money, for a particular course or the credits.

The following states offer prepaid plan-

  • Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Michigan, Nevada, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia.

Similarly, the savings plans give good returns, but when they are used for educational purposes-they can give tax benefits’.

The following states offer savings plans-

  • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida,
  • Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kanas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland

    Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada,

    New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North- Carolina, North-Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South-Caolina,

    South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West-Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, District of Columbia

It is evident that the majority of the states offers savings plans-whereas, only a few states opt for the prepaid plans.


ESAs are savings meant for education. The savings accounts were created under the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997.

The following are the features of these accounts-

  • You can make a maximum contribution of $2,000, if the child is less than 18 years.
  • The return can be tax free, if it is withdrawn for post-secondary education
  • The eligibility for these plans depend on your income
  • The income limit for married couple (who fill the form jointly) ranges from $190,000-$220,000, whereas the limit for others ranges from $95,000-$110,000.
  • The relatives of the child who fall below the income limit can also contribute.


ESA accounts are considered as an asset of the student (if a student owns the account) by the U.S Department of Education.

In majority of the cases- parents own the account as long as the beneficiary is a minor. This can be a little tricky, because after the student reaches 18 years he becomes the owner, and he/she can assess the fund at the 20 percent financial aid assessment rate, (conditioned he is independent).


We already mentioned, the withdrawal can be tax free- if and only if – the expenses are done for the purpose of education. However, the current laws permit tax free withdrawal on certain expenses, like computer accessories, software, internet access. However, there are certain conditions-

  • Purchases have to be made from kindergarten, through the senior high schools.
  • Students, who are eligible for financial aid, must consider withdrawing their money from Coverdell’s to cover these above expenses.

Although, these plans seem to be really attractive-you need to be aware about the drawbacks.

What has changed and how can the change be a drawback?

There have been considerable changes made to these plans by The Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005.

Previously, the parents owned the accounts, or transferred the funds to the custodial accounts, and it was considered to be asset for the child. Some Coverdell accounts, transferred the ownership back to the students at the age of 18.

The state-sponsored prepaid tuition plans were not considered as an asset, because the dollar value that was redeemed was considered as a resource, ultimately reducing your aid eligibility.
The plans were linked with the dollars- Therefore, failure to prepay the cost of the credits, resulted in reduction of aid eligibility by dollar amount of credits redeemed.


State-sponsored plans are undoubtedly very attractive, but you have to be very careful as premature withdrawal leads to heavy penalty. However, after completion of 12 months, the state sponsored plans are flexible, and allow you to change your investment allocation, or move your funds to the other state’s plan.

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